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JAMA Citation Guide


References to email and electronic mailing list messages, like those to other forms of personal communications (see 3.13.9, Special Materials, Meeting Presentations and Other Unpublished Material), should be listed parenthetically in the text rather than in the reference list and should include the name and highest academic degree(s) of the person who sent the message, his/her affiliation, and the date the message was sent. Note: As with all personal communications, permission should be obtained from the author.

An example of an e-mail citation, appearing in running text, is given below:

There have been no subsequent reports of toxic reactions in the exposed groups (Joan Smith, MD, e-mail communication, March 29, 2004).

An e-mail list (listserve) message cited in running text would be cited as in the example below:

The Editorial Committee of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) is preparing a statement on government embargoes and scientific exchange (Margaret A. Winker, MD, WAME listserve, February 25, 2004).

An e-mail (listserve) thread cited in running text would be cited as in the example below:

How authors learn writing skills. WAME listserve discussion. October 19–22, 2005. Accessed February 15, 2006.

Websites/Web Pages

WEBSITES OR WEB PAGES Author or responsible body (If given). Title of item cited (if none given, use the organization name). Name of website. [Published date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. URL
World Health Organization. Philippines: Assistance and response after,Typhoon Haiyan. World Health Organization. November 1, 2013. Accessed November 22, 2013.


11th edition update: URL moved to the end of the citation.

Online Databases

ONLINE DATABASES Authors’ surnames and initials, if given, or name of the group. Title of database. Publisher, or database owner or host. Year of publication and/ or version number. Updated date. Accessed date. URL

DynaMed. EBSCO Industries, Inc. 2020. Updated October 14, 2020. Accessed October 15, 2020.

ClinicalKey. Elsevier, Inc. 2020. Accessed October 15, 2020.


11th edition update:  Removed [database] from title. Location of publisher not required.  URL moved to the end of citation.

Online Database Topic

If the article type you are citing from an online database is ambiguous, it is best to cite the article as an e-book chapter.  Usually, the database will list the type of article you are citing.

Please note, this was suggested by UpToDate and not the AMA Manual of Style, 11e.


Authors’ surnames and initials or name of the group if the author is a group. Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Title of Database. Publisher’s name. Year of publication and/or version number. Chapter number (or inclusive pages if available). Accessed date. URL

Aberg JA, Cespedes MS.  HIV and women.  In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. UpToDate, Inc.; 2020. Topic 3753 Version 43.0. Accessed January, 24, 2020.


11th edition update: removed place of publication.


Software need not always be cited in the reference list; for example, it may be cited in the text if it is mentioned in the Statistical Analysis subsection of the Methods section. The following is an example of an in-text citation for software:

All analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc).

SOFTWARE Name of software. Version if available. Publisher Name; year. Accessed date. URL

Epi Info. Version 7.1.5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2015. Accessed March 14, 2016.

Stata 14. Version 14. StataCorp; 2015. Accessed March 14, 2016.


11th edition updates: removed [computer program]. Removed place of publication. Added access date and URL.



Name of app. Version if available. Publisher Name. Updated date. 
Epocrates app. Version 20.20.1. Epocrates, Inc. Updated October 10, 2020.


11th edition updates: New citation type. Used to be cited like software.

Online Conference Proceedings/Presentations and Webinars

ONLINE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS OR PRESENTATIONS Author(s) or creators's last name, Author(s) first and middle initial. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Name of meeting; Month Day(s), Year; Location. Accessed date. URL
Baxley EG, Lawson-Johnson L, Vivier P. Reducing health care disparities through education. Paper presented at the AMA Accelerating Change in Medical Education Conference; October 16, 2013; Chicago, IL. Accessed November 25, 2013.
WEBINARS Author(s) or creators's last name, Author(s) first and middle initial. Title of webinar.  [Name of Publisher] webinar. Date of webinar. Accessed date. URL
Gunn E, Kendall-Taylor J, Vandenburg B. Taking author instructions to the next level. Council of Science Editors webinar. September 10, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016.

11th edition updates: URL moved to the end.