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JAMA Citation Guide

AMA Style Guide for Citations within Text

See AMA Manual of Style - 3.3- References Given in Text for more information and examples of citing within text.

Citing Sources Within Text

Guidelines For Citing References Within Text

  • Cite references that are retrievable in text, tables, and figures in consecutive order using superscript Arabic numbers.
  • Use commas to separate multiple citation numbers in text.
  • Corresponding references should be listed in numeric order at the end of the document.
  • Unpublished works and personal communications should be cited parenthetically (and not on the reference list).
  • Superscript numbers are placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.


The report1 found that...
As has been noted previously,2
This argument was refuted in another study.3
Other reports4,5confirm these findings. (Note: Two sources are cited.)
" has been the conclusion of this author."6 (Note: Use after direct quotation.)
In recent reports1,3-5,9surgical outcomes have been...(Note: Multiple sources cited; not all are consecutive.)



You may cite the same source more than once by using the same Endnote number. However, when you repeat a number, you should include a page number, in parentheses, next to the note number.


The data1(p44) disproves the previous assertion...


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