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JAMA Citation Guide


References to e-mail and e-mail list messages, like those to other forms of personal communications (see also 3.13.8, Special Print Materials, Unpublished Material), should be listed parenthetically in the text rather than in the reference list and should include the name and highest academic degree(s) of the person who sent the message and the date the message was sent. Note: As with all personal communications, permission should be obtained from the author.

An example of an e-mail citation, appearing in running text, is given below:

There have been no subsequent reports of toxic reactions in the exposed groups (Joan Smith, MD, e-mail communication, March 29, 2004).

An e-mail list (listserve) message cited in running text would be cited as in the example below:

The Editorial Committee of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) is preparing a statement on government embargoes and scientific exchange (Margaret A. Winker, MD, WAME listserve, February 25, 2004).

An e-mail (listserve) thread cited in running text would be cited as in the example below:

How authors learn writing skills. WAME listserve discussion. October 19–22, 2005. Accessed February 15, 2006.

Web Pages

WEB PAGES Author or responsible body (If given). Title of item cited (if none given, use the organization name). Name of website. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.
World Health Organization. Philippines: Assistance and response after,Typhoon Haiyan. World Health Organization. Published November, 2013. Accessed November 22, 2013.

Online Databases

ONLINE DATABASES Author or creators's last name, Author's first and middle initial. Title of database [database online]. Location of publisher: Publisher Name; year of publication. URL. Accessed date.
Embase [database online]. Philadelphia PA: Elsevier; 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.

Porter RS, Kaplan JL. Merck Manual [database online]. Whitehouse Station, N.J.:Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.; 2012. Accessed November 25, 2013.

Online Database Topic


If the article type you are citing from an online database is ambiguous, it is best to cite the article as an e-book chapter.

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year:inclusive pages. URL: [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date].

Aberg JA, Cespedes MS.  HIV and women.  In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc.; 2018. Accessed June 13, 2018.



(includes mobile apps and CDs)
Name of Computer Program [computer program]. Version if available. Location of publisher: Publisher Name; year.
Skyscape [computer program]. Marlborough, MA: Inc; 2013.

Clinical Pharmacology [computer program]. Version 2.07. Tampa, FL: Gold Standard Media; 2003.

Online Conference Proceedings/Presentations

ONLINE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS OR PRESENTATIONS Author(s) or creators's last name, Author(s) first and middle initial. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Name of meeting; Month, Year; Location. URL. Accessed date.
Baxley EG, Lawson-Johnson L, Vivier, P. Reducing health care disparities through education. Paper presented at the AMA Accelerating Change in Medical Education Conference; October, 2013; Chicago, IL. Accessed November 25, 2013.